A Decade of CRISPR: Advances and Outlook in Genome Editing
Keywords:Genome editing, CRISPR-Cas9, Gene therapy, DNA repair mechanisms, Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs), Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs),, Agriculture biotechnology, Medical applications, Ethical concerns, Genetic engineering
Over the past decade, the CRISPR-based genome editing technology has made a transformative impact on basic and applied biological research, revolutionizing various fields including medicine and agriculture. This survey paper provides a comprehensive overview of the significant advancements, challenges, and future prospects of CRISPR technology. We discussed the origins and development of CRISPR genome editing, including the discovery of CRISPR-Cas systems in bacteria, RNAprogrammed genome editors, and base editing technologies. The paper highlights the remarkable ability of CRISPR to edit specific segments of DNA in cells and living organisms, leading to groundbreaking advancements in diagnosing human diseases, predicting individual susceptibility based on personal genetics, and rapidly altering genes responsible for plant traits. We showcase several key examples of CRISPR's impact, such as a CRISPR-based therapy for sickle cell disease, a nutritionally enhanced CRISPRedited tomato, and a disease-resistant CRISPR-edited wheat variety. Furthermore, we address the challenges and opportunities associated with improving editing accuracy, precision, programmable genetic sequence insertions, targeted delivery of CRISPR editors, and accessibility. Looking ahead, we anticipate further expansion of genome editing research and applications, which will intersect with advances in complementary technologies like machine learning, live cell imaging, and sequencing. We conclude that a combination of discovery and engineering will refine the CRISPR toolbox, addressing current challenges and enabling broader applications in fundamental and applied research. The driving force behind future innovation in CRISPR technology will continue to be scientific curiosity and the desire to benefit society.